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10 Ways To Successfully Defend Your PhD


Well, I’m back. After 3 months of intense thesis writing, revisions, and successfully defending (all while working a part-time job in industry), I want to share with you Part 1 of 3 of this series. Part 2 will be how to finish your thesis in a timely manner (and write a good quality thesis). Part 3 will be life after a PhD, making the transition into the workforce, and how to prepare ahead of time (i.e. apply for jobs before, during, or after writing your thesis).

First, what does it take to give a successful PhD Defense? How can you prepare, keep the stress levels low, and make sure you have the highest chance of success?

I’ll just say that everyone’s PhD Defense is unique and is unpredictable. Your talk/presentation is only as good as you want it to be. And you cannot fully prepare for all the endless possibility of questions. If you wrote a 200 page thesis, your thesis commitee can pick apart an error bar on a graph on page 133. They can ask you what you meant by a word in a random sentence in any given paragraph. Keep in mind, this is all just apart of the PhD hazing process, and in a sense is just to humble you. At the end of the day, if you wrote a good quality thesis and are CONFIDENT, you should have no problem successfully defending and leaving that room with a sense of relief. Either way, I wanted to share my experience while it is still fresh in my mind

1) Do not underestimate how long it takes to prepare your slides/talk and make sure you give multiple practice talks

When I turned in my thesis two weeks ahead of time to my committee, I thought the hard part was over. Although a very important milestone, don’t let your guard down. If you already have most your slides ready to go, then you are lucky. I ended up getting data at the last minute and my story changed. I had to make many model slides from scratch.

If you want to give a GOOD thesis talk, you need to practice multiple times. And this means that you don’t cram it all in a couple of days right before your talk. I’m not talking about giving just one practice talk. You need to give multiple group practice talks. In between, you need to practice on your own.

You certainly don’t have to memorize every word of your thesis defense talk, but you should have it well-polished. There is no limit (or requirement) on how many practice talks you should give, but give as many talks as it takes until you feel like you are ready. If you are unsure of the quality of your talk (or being “ready”), tape record yourself or watch a video of yourself to see just how good it is. You might be surprised when you play it back to yourself.

You should also time your talk. I noticed that I tend to talk faster (by about 5 minutes) when giving the actual public talk vs. when I practice on my own. The length of the talk can depend on many departmental factors. My talk was ~45-50 minutes long which also leaves time for questions.

Either way, do not procrastinate on your slides and/or talk until days before. Make sure you use the full two weeks to perfect your slides, polish your talk (and be very concise about your words), and review material you are unsure about.

2) Listen to other thesis defense talks

The best way to mentally prepare for your thesis defense talk is to listen to other thesis defense talks. I actually went and got a few talks on DVD (the good ones that I remembered). If their research is on a similar topic as your own, this would be more ideal-but take what you can get. When you watch the talk, ask yourself what makes it good or bad? Were they enthusiastic and sincere? Did they keep the energy throughout the talk? Were there some rough areas of the talk? When nerves are running high, talks may not go as expected. You can battle this nervousness by showing up well-prepared. If you are, the thesis defense talk is just a formality.

If you cannot obtain any thesis defense talks on video, make sure that you go to actual public thesis defense talks. At least go to one so that you have a good idea of how to TIE the whole story together and give your audience the big picture. Keep in mind that you are giving a talk to a general audience. This means that use of jargon and highly technical terms will only put your audience to sleep. Make sure it is clear and understandable. Simplify it the best that you can and put it in the larger context of your research field. Use cartoons or model slides (if necessary) to give your audience the general, overall picture.

3) Have your friends, labmates, and others drill you with questions

What’s the best way to prepare for unforeseen questions? Have others that are familiar with your work drill you with questions. Chances are that even though these questions may not be the actual questions you will be asked either by the public and/or your thesis committee, it prepares you to think on your feet. It also builds your confidence. And the questions that your labmates or friends ask you may just be the same question you will get asked on your defense day.

4) Re-read over your entire thesis and write out your own list of questions

You may be sick of reading your entire thesis over and over by now, but you need to keep everything fresh in your mind. I actually read over my entire thesis multiple times during my final two weeks and came up with my own list of questions that I thought my committee would ask me. In addition, I also came up with a list of questions that I had of my own (questions that I was unsure of or that I thought were a weakness of mine). If you cannot come up with a list of good questions, then you are not trying hard enough.

Even though my committee didn’t ask me my exact list of questions, the process of  coming up with my own list of questions-then finding the answers to those questions (beyond my thesis)-actually helped me gained a deeper understanding of my project. And it was a confidence booster in disguise.

5) Don’t let distractions get to you

Completing your thesis is a huge milestone. Those last two weeks until defense day can be stressful. Whether you are doing job interviews, applying to other jobs, or you want to “jump the gun” and finally start your post-PhD life, don’t give into temptation. Keep your guard up until your actual defense day. This is key to giving a good talk. You need to go in with the mindset that you will kill your presentation and give a long lasting impression to your audience. I have actually heard that some people who gave great thesis defense talks were offered a position shortly after (i.e. a postdoc).

You are going to want to do all those little tasks that you have been putting off for so long because you have spent X amount of months writing your thesis in solitude and you had no time to do them. Your list could be very long. I can tell you that one of the things on my list was to keep publishing blog articles and keep my blog running. I simply did not have enough time. Prioritize and focus on your defense talk and nothing else. If you are looking for jobs during this time period, I will be writing about this in Part 3 of this series.

6) Get plenty of sleep, keep your diet in check, and take care of yourself

This might be the most difficult thing for anyone. I struggled with this the most while writing my thesis. Skipping meals, late nights, overloading your system with caffeine just to stay awake. You have to fight it the best that you can. A month before my defense talk, I hit the gym 3x a week (for the first time in months). Everyone handles the anxiety of their defense talk differently. I am someone who thinks about it constantly. So it becomes hard to focus on other things, like taking care of yourself.

Once your thesis is turned in to your committee members, during those final two weeks- sleep and a proper diet are KEY. The day of your defense, make sure you are well-rested (don’t stay up all night stressing about it) and eat well. Don’t sell yourself short. By taking care of yourself, you ensure that you have the highest probability for giving a great thesis defense talk and showing your committee members that you are confident about your project.

7) Keep your cool and relax

When your defense day comes, you have to remember that you have put in a lot of HARD WORK to get to this point. You know your topic better than anyone. Because of this, you have no reason to be stressed out.

When your committee pushes you and asks you questions, they again will push you to your limits. You will meet a point where you won’t know the answer. Also, a question could simply be a future direction/experiment that you simply haven’t tested yet. Remember that they are simply trying to test your knowledge and humble you. You don’t have to know all the answers. Therefore, when you are answering questions, keep your cool and relax. Answer the questions the best that you can and you should have no problem passing. And in all honesty, the prelim (or qualifying exam) was much harder than the actual defense…

8) Don’t focus on the after-party until you have actually reached the after-party

Who doesn’t want to spend their final two weeks planning the celebration? Although I did have an after-party, I did not go to great efforts to plan it like a wedding party. As I said in #5, prioritize and focus on your thesis defense talk and nothing else. Plan your after-party while you are on break from your practice talk/preparing for questions/working on slides but do not make it a number one priority. Once you have passed, then you can change your focus. The feeling is indescribable (see #10).

9) Have a good structure

A good thesis talk also has a good introduction before going on to the next idea or slide. It should flow in a logical manner and be smooth. That is why #1 is important, because many people don’t spend enough time in the creation of good powerpoint slides. Your slides and talk have to MATCH up, meaning you can’t have really good slides and a mediocre talk (or vice versa) if you want it to go well.

This is why practice is important, and if you spend enough time on BOTH the talk/slides you will give a very good talk. A lot of times while I was actually practicing my talk, I had to go back and change the order/wording of slides or how I introduced certain slides (the wording) so that the flow would be better.

Be formal in how you word things (i.e. say “our data show that”… vs. “you see here that”…). To give a good introduction, it might be wise to use slides that ask a question in between. This question slide (break) in-between your next idea allows for your general audience to CATCH UP and understand your logic. Why are you doing this experiment? If you just show a bunch of your published data with no introduction (and maybe a title that gives an interpretation/punchline), you will overwhelm and bore your audience.

Many scientists forget that although they are an expert on their topic, what seems easy and understandable to them-does not apply to others outside of their field.

Before you go to your next data slides introduce the idea (based on this data I wanted to ask this question). Then tell them WHY you performed this particular experiment (which is basically in the form of a question). Once your audience understands why, go on to the next slide and give them your interpretation. In other words, don’t just jump to the interpretation. This will keep your audience’s attention and make sure that your thesis defense talk gets a lot of positive feedback and leaves a good impression on your committee members (it really does show).

10) Visualize yourself giving your defense each day and think about how good it will feel when it’s over

This one is pretty self explanatory. I will say that when it is all said and done, it feels like a huge burden has been lifted off your shoulders. It is emotional and you finally feel that all that hard work and time that you put in over the years-was all worth it in the end. Good luck to all those who are preparing for their defense talk in the future! Think about what it will be like to get up in front of a large audience and show everyone how you moved a field forward. This is YOUR moment to show everyone you are an expert in your field. The more you keep this mentality, the better your talk will be. Keep your cool and relax (#7) and everything will be fine.

If you would like to see an example video of a defense talk that illustrates the advice I’ve given, a link to my PhD defense can be found here: http://bit.ly/1sAIT7O

Best of luck to all!


Further Reading

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Comments

  1. Hally-Joe Zak says:

    Reread your thesis? No way! And no one on my committee or otherwise ever noticed that I added “My mentor is a douchebag.” on page 178. Heh!

    • Lol. Well I’m glad you got away with it. One of my committee members actually read my entire thesis, so you never know. I only suggest rereading your entire thesis to keep the info fresh in your mind, which is more likely to help you think on your feet. Not that you haven’t read it enough, it just doesn’t hurt. I am sure there are worse things you could add on Page 178 😉

  2. I like #6, the “don’t let yourself go” tip. Often overlooked during the last 0.2 miles the marathon that is a PhD.

    • Hey Thanks Jen! I think this extends throughout most of grad school and not just the final two weeks, but I agree that it is crucial to keep your work/life balance in check (as hard as it can be). Although some PhD stress is inevitable (and depends on how you handle it), keeping your physical health in check helps to keep stress levels low and equips you to handle the mental stress. I did write about this earlier in a previous article (http://thegradstudentway.com/blog/?p=76 ) (reason #2) which still holds true 🙂

  3. Melissa says:

    I just defended and kept coming back to these tips while finishing my talk. They are incredibly useful, especially to ignore distractions and keep your cool on defense day. Thank you a ton for the post!

  4. Bethany Assaf says:

    I agree that you should read over the entire thesis. None of my three committee members really even made it to Chapter 3, but at least I was prepared for broad-level questions. If I hadn’t re-read, I think I would have been bogged down in the details.

    Here is a post with some tips from my department. I found them useful! http://ucfhistory.wordpress.com/2014/06/25/prepping-for-the-thesis-defense-10-tips-for-graduate-students/

  5. Dr. J.P. Singh says:

    A very good structured guidelines. It speacks of the experience of the person who has guided a number of scholars.

  6. Thanks a lot for useful tips. I am in the process of writing my dissertation, so I will come back to your post in the late period of my degree

  7. FinanceGuy says:

    40-50 minutes? Lucky you. I’m just about to have my own PhD thesis defence at Wroclaw University of Economics (Poland). It seems that it will be quite different. The defence is of course open to public so everyone can come. The Committee always consists of 9 professors including two officially appointed reviewers of your PhD thesis that wrote and shared their reviews before the defence. I am obliged to give a speech summarizing what I have managed to accomplished during 4-year-research. I have only 20 minutes to do that. Why? Because the PhD thesis defence in Poland is about Q&A session not the speech. That is why it is so stressful. Each professor from the Committee asks 2-3 questions on average which means that you will be hit by 18-27 questions. Here comes the best part. You don’t answer the questions as they come. You have to write them down quickly (sometimes the questions are preceded by a quite a long speeches by professors so you don’t actually know what the question was) and once all members of the Committee have made their inquiries you can start answering (one round naturally consists of 9 questions). However, that’s not all because if the Committee members don’t have any more questions the Chairman of the defence turns to the audience for additional questions. And here we go again. The Q&A session lasts 1,5-2 hrs on average. After that you forget what your name is but instead of going to sleep for 5 days you have to go for an official dinner (that you pay for) with all 9 members of the Committee and continue the chit-chat for like forever. I am so looking forward to experience that 🙂

  8. Victoria Deycard says:

    Okay, although the idea of putting “my mentor is a douchebag” on any page of a thesis is funny, I simply can’t believe it. You put your heart and soul for 3 to 4 years (maybe longer) in this work, and I don’t believe anyone would be that daring to risk such a move, and just to look like an immature child in the end. All mentors become douchebags (in our eyes) at one point or another during our doctorate, it is their job.

    With that said, I present in 21 days. I really want to reread my thesis, but every-time I do I find errors. Ack it is soooo discouraging, just silly typos! It is already turned in. It is driving me nuts, I reread the thing a million times and still more typos!!! Not a confidence builder at this point.

    • I am defending in three days. I am freaking out! I have a committee of four and two of them read and approved my last few chapters and suggested that I move forward. As soon as I set up a defense date, another committee member suggested that I had not gone deep enough and would be hesitant to sign off on my defense for graduation. Needless to say, my three allotted weeks turned into just four days because I had to rewrite the last three chapters. And I have the same problem of re-reading my thesis and finding errors. It is a necessity though. Fingers crossed.

    • Omg I totally know the feeling. I dread re-reading that thing! God knows what other dumplings of stress will unveil themselves

  9. Hi all,
    Thanks Ryan Raver a lot for your tips. I am preparing for the defense in 1 week. many things to take care of. You tips help me forcus on sometihings important. I really appreciate it.
    Thanks again.

  10. Emma Adams says:

    Victoria, you hit the nail on the head about how re-reading the dissertation is such a confidence killer because of the typo errors that never seem to go away. I will be presenting my final defense in exactly four days from today. I am not fully ready but hope to be ready by that day. I have no worries about the Q&As because that is probably my strongest attribute. The reason I came across this blog is to find out defense presentation tips because I have a problem with losing my train of thoughts whenever I panic and I think it is because I am not used to public speaking. I agree with some of the tips here but to read through the dissertation to prepare for the defense seems unnecessary unless you did not use it to create your PowerPoint or unless you completed it a long time ahead of your defense. I think the best thing is to create your PowerPoint, notes and go over those over and over rather than your dissertation.

    I did not realize how time-consuming it is to complete the dissertation. The last few months were the busiest and one can continue to add, delete, change something for years and still find errors. I wonder how common it is to use an editor because I contemplated paying an editor but after thinking about saving the $500 fee and allocating it to something else, I decided to edit it myself, however it has driven me nuts.

  11. Thanks for the write-up. The tips are well structured and appear to be very useful. It helps me a lot in my presentation. Cheers.

  12. Albert Schloegel says:

    I actually wore an adult diaper in case I had to ….. well you know…and that was 20+ years ago.

  13. Albert Schloegel says:

    And I hold 2 count’em 2 Ph.D.s I always reread my thesis so many times that I begin to dream about if. But the day before my defense I do not at it. This give me time to let it settle and I can relax. Remember, YOU are the expert on your subject. Someone mentioned use cartoons, I did exactly that, drove home the point, and everyone remembered it. Also, someone said don’t be to technical or use too much topic/subject vernacular, this makes it tiring. I always, in teaching, speaking, strictly adhere to the K.I.S.S. philosophy, “Keep It Simple S—–“. Unless necessary to expand, and even then Don’t Overdo It. Allow for questions, keep everyone’s interest. Leave them wanting more. Yes this is the culmination of years of work. Work you did, and no one knows you subject as well as you. Be relaxed and prepared. Enjoy this experience. Over several weeks preceding your defense date, have friends & colleagues, drill you. Also, your mentors job it to bring out the best in you, and have you prepared as much as possible. I went to a university that if had I written” my mentor was a douchebag”, in my thesis, that would have ended my doctorial pursuit, also probably have me before the ethics and the board. Be professional and present well.

  14. Albert Schloegel says:

    I apologize for any spellin errers, I done writ this on ma phone. Dr. A.

  15. Scott Winton says:

    Where can I find parts 2 and 3?

  16. Inocentes Legaspi Jr. says:

    Thank you so much for this post. I learned a lot. I am about to have my proposal defense for my doctoral dissertation on Saturday. God bless!

  17. This article helped me back in October when I defended my proposal and now I find myself here again just two days before my final defense. Thank you for the helpful tips!!

  18. Jikitsha says:

    Thanks for the tips.

  19. Thanks for the post. I am writing my thesis for defence in March. I was confident in presentation but this time my heart beats faster and faster when thinking about Mar. I will keep these tips in mind and well-prepare my defence.
    Thanks

  20. Gruffy de Monterrey says:

    Really encouraging and useful. Thanks. My defense is later this month. I just heard tonight. Having to do it over the Internet so that’s an extra tech hurdle (plus I have no idea who to ask to be my proctor for a night time defense my time but I guess I’ll come up with something). Definitely going to read and re-read my thesis – and hit the gym! Hadn’t thought about an after party but it’s not a bad idea!

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